Programs that attempt to reduce the incidence of bullying, a form of violence among children, on school playgrounds, in neighbourhoods, in homes and on the Internet, through a variety of interventions which may include use of an anonymous questionnaire to assess the nature and prevalence of the problem, development and announcement of an intervention program, open discussions of bullying at school and in other venues, increased supervision of children in areas that are "hotspots" for bullying, arrangements for reporting bullying incidents, immediate intervention when bullying incidents occur, development of protective strategies for targets, formation of support groups for victims of bullies, discussions with parents of involved students, and engagement of community members in support of the program. Most bullying prevention programs are school based and target students in elementary, middle and junior high schools. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or psychological; and involves intentional, repeated hurtful acts, words and other behaviour such as name-calling, threatening or shunning committed by one or more children against another.
Programs that help to protect the safety of children by providing a means of identifying them should they run away, become lost, be abducted or become victims of another form of violent crime.
Programs that attempt to reduce the incidence of child abduction through a variety of educational interventions which may focus on children of various ages, parents, people who work with families and/or the community at large. Delivery formats may include fact sheets, safety tip lists and other informational materials; individual or group educational sessions; and general media campaigns.
Programs that attempt to reduce the incidence of date rape, verbal and physical abuse, threats of abuse and other forms of violence that occur between dating teens through a variety of educational interventions which may focus on potential victims and perpetrators; agency, school or health care personnel who work with them; or the community as a whole. Activities may include classroom-based education, teacher workshops, parent workshops, peer leadership training, counselling groups for males who abuse or threaten a female peer, and community-based workshops for out-of-school youth. Programs may also be available for older people who are dating.
Programs that attempt to reduce the incidence of child abuse, elder abuse and spouse abuse in family settings through a variety of educational interventions which may focus on children of various ages, parents, people who work with families and/or the community at large.
Programs that offer a variety of activities for youth who are at risk for behaviour which is likely to involve them in the juvenile justice system with the objective of assisting them to improve self-esteem, to become aware of alternative ways of dealing with feelings and leisure time, and to take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Included may be counselling, rap and discussion groups, tutoring, companionship programs, alternative peer group experiences and supervised recreational activities.
Organizations that offer firesetter intervention programs for children and adolescents, some as young as age two or three, who have demonstrated a fascination with fire and who may have set one or more fires accidentally or through curiosity-motivated fire play. Activities generally include an interview with the youngster and his/her parents to determine the motivation for the firesetting behaviour and the severity of the problem; information regarding the appropriate and safe use of fire, child supervision techniques and responsibilities, what to do if a fire occurs and the consequences of setting fires; and a concluding tour of the local fire station. Problem firesetters with deeper problems are referred to the mental health system for counselling or, if malicious criminal intent is involved, are charged with juvenile arson and become the responsibility of the juvenile justice system. Juvenile firesetter intervention programs are often offered by local fire departments in cooperation with police agencies, schools and other community groups.
Programs that help people who may be vulnerable to rape, molestation or other forms of sexual assault become aware of the general precautions that can be taken to reduce the risk of becoming a victim, and the alternatives for handling the situation should they be approached or attacked.
Programs that attempt to reduce the incidence of violent acts committed by youth on the streets, in the schools or in other settings through a variety of educational interventions which may focus on children of various ages, parents, people who work with families, the schools, health care providers, law enforcement officials and/or the community at large. The program may provide information about model/promising prevention and intervention programs and crisis response strategies; descriptions of the risk factors associated with youth violence; research including statistics on violence committed by and against children and teens; outreach; and/or presentations that may be tailored for a variety of audiences.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles: Copyright Notice.