Programs that conduct research which focuses on how society distributes scarce resources such as land, labour, raw materials and machinery to produce goods and services as well as the organizational frameworks related to these processes. Economists collect and analyze data, monitor economic trends and develop forecasts; and address issues such as energy costs, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates, business cycles, taxes and employment levels. Included are microeconomists who study the supply and demand decisions of individuals and firms; industrial economists who study the market structure of particular industries in terms of the number of competitors and the market decisions of competitive firms and monopolies; macroeconomists who study historical trends in the whole economy and forecast future trends in areas such as unemployment, inflation, economic growth, productivity and investment; international economists who study international financial markets, exchange rates, and the effects of various trade policies such as tariffs; labour economists who study the supply and demand for labour and the determination of wages; public finance economists who study the supply and demand for labour and the determination of wages; and econometricians who develop and use mathematical techniques such as calculus, game theory and regression analysis to formulate economic models.
Programs that conduct research which focuses on human population dynamics including the size, structure and distribution of populations, and how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration and aging. Demographic analysis can relate to whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion and ethnicity.
Programs that conduct research which focuses on the human aging process and aged human populations using the knowledge and methodologies of the social sciences, psychology, and the biological and health sciences with the objective of improving the health and quality of life of older adults.
Programs that conduct research which focuses on the behaviour of individuals, independently or collectively; the physical and environmental bases of mental, emotional and neurological activity; and the analysis and treatment of behaviour problems and disorders.
Programs that conduct research which focuses on the history, sociology, politics, culture and economics of a particular geographic region or a particular subset of the population which shares common characteristics, traits and customs.
Programs that conduct research which focuses on society and social behaviour, the characteristics of social groups, organizations and institutions; the ways individuals are affected by each other and by the groups to which they belong; and the effect of social traits such as sex, age or race on a person's daily life. Sociologists examine the groups and social institutions people form, as well as various social, religious, political and business organizations. They also study the behaviour of, and interaction among, groups; trace their origin and growth; and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles: Copyright Notice.